The term ‘communication’ becomes meaningless if we cannot distinguish communication from what is not communication or if the notion of ‘information transfer’ is undifferentiated. The situation is complicated by the fact that some phenomena can be viewed as ‘communicational’ in some respects but not in others. A further complication is the range of phenomena which are similar to communication. Some suggestions are made for the distinction and for the range of intermediate cases. Apart from real-world events, our reasoning processes and mental models of reality, while communicable and exploiting information transfer are not communication. However, there is a danger that a dichotomy between communication and non-communication will divert attention from the integration of communication and non-communication in our understanding of reality.