Brief Literature Review on the Mechanisms Involved in Producing Axial Difussion Injury

Current work reviews the concept, pathological mechanism and the process of diagnosing diffuse axonal lesions (DAI). The pathological mechanism underlying DAI is complicated, including axotomy with the appearance of retraction bulbs, interrupted protein transport along axonal neurophilaments, massive influx of calcium ions and calpain-mediated hydrolysis, axonal cytoskeletal cell degradation, beta-amyloid precursor protein accumulation and changes in glial cells. The transition from primary axotomy to secondary axotomy causes a very complex, calciumdependent biochemical cascade.