From ancient times, the history of human beings has developed through a succession of steps and sometimes jumps, until reaching at the relative sophistication of the modern brain and culture. Researchers are attempting to create systems that mimic human thinking, understand speech, or beat the best human chess player. Understanding the mechanisms of intelligence, and creating intelligent artefacts are the twin goals of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Great mathematical minds have played a key role in AI in recent years; to name only a few, Janos Neumann (also known as John von Neumann), Konrad Zuse, Norbert Wiener, Claude E. Shannon, Alan M. Turing, Grigore Moisil, Lofti A. Zadeh, Ronald R. Yager, Michio Sugeno, Solomon Marcus, or Lászlo A. Barabási. Introducing the study of AI is not merely useful because of its capability to solve difficult problems, but also because of its Mathematical nature. It prepares us to understand the current world, enabling us to act on the challenges of the future.